Commodity prices went up by 2, percent within a single year due to hyperinflation. Although the inflation stabled out temporarily , the damage was done, and numerous people had been pushed into poverty, while an oligarch class was rising to wealth and power. Chubais implemented a voucher program to alleviate the worst of privatization, originally conceived of in an academic paper by Shleifer. However, the fact that the most profitable industries, including oil, gas, and metal, were excluded from the program, paired with extremely high inflation, quickly led to the vouchers becoming worthless.
Chubais and the HIID were able to operate by using foreign money to establish private, non-governmental organizations that could bypass parliament, most notably the Russian Privatization Center, which carried out government policy and directed privatization processes. It had the power and authority of a government agency, but was not accountable to parliament or officials, being run directly by Chubais and the Harvard Boys. Western aid money provided the funds to construct an oligarchy. Probably not. By the end of Yeltsin's first term, Yeltsin's popularity had plummeted to the single digits, and Chubais and his clan were implicated in a massive corruption scandal for awarding bribes and privileges and using funds for personal profit.
The U. After one term of Boris Yeltsin, the Russian people despised him. Four years of neoliberalism, and Russians vastly preferred none other than the Communist Party's candidate, Gennady Zyuganov. We didn't care at all about the election corruption. We wanted to pour money into his campaign. The task before them was enormous: to get Russia's most unpopular president re-elected.
They managed to succeed.
The history of Russia from to the present began with the dissolution of the Soviet Union . Following the economic collapse of the early s, Russia suffered from a sharp increase in the rates of poverty and economic inequality. Starting your own business or owning an enterprise was illegal in the Soviet Union. Those who tried to sell items bought from foreign visitors.
According to the Time article, an early campaign memo by the team of U. There exists only one very simple strategy for winning: first, becoming the only alternative to the Communists; and second, making the people see that the Communists must be stopped at all costs. The Time article reports: "The Americans used their focus-group coordinator, Alexei Levinson, to determine what exactly Russians most feared about the Communists.
Long lines, scarce food and renationalization of property were frequently cited, but mostly people worried about civil war. Russian television, according to Time, became an "arm of the Yeltsin campaign," and began to broadcast an anti-communist and pro-Yeltsin message day in and day out. The idea that a communist victory would promote mass chaos, riots, and possibly a civil war was a favorite topic of the Yeltsin campaign during this time, broadcast on the now U.
TV had become, according to Time, "almost exclusively a nonstop diet of past Soviet horrors". The extent of the U. The Americans advised on advertising, on speeches, they assembled staged crowds of supporters and mandated that government employees attend rallies.
They had Yeltsin send out mail to former Soviet Red Army veterans, thanking them for their service. While the communists were constantly calling on Yeltsin to hold a public debate, on the American's advice, Yeltsin refused to do so. According to an American adviser speaking to Time, Yeltsin "would have lost," and such a debate could have been disasterous for their efforts. While the Americans were operating undercover for the duration of the campaign, the U.
The advisers quickly bragged about it to Time magazine, and the story was plastered all over front pages with pride.
The United States and its media saw nothing wrong with such interference in foreign democratic processes. Time magazine concluded: "Democracy triumphed--and along with it came the tools of modern campaigns, including the trickery and slickery Americans know so well. That only began to change in the late s when financier and philanthropist George Soros as well as international relief organizations—first Great Britain's Medical Emergency Relief International, or Merlin, and later the Boston-based Partners in Health PIH —began using this province as a testing ground for developing a comprehensive program to combat TB.
But, starting in September , the groups began taking a riskier and more expensive approach that had been developed by PIH in Peru. They encouraged local doctors, first in the prison system and then throughout the region, to aggressively treat all cases of MDR-TB, which can take as long as two years with anywhere from six to eight drugs.
The strategy was facilitated by the creation in the late s of a drug procurement consortium dubbed the Green Light Committee, organized by the WHO, the U. Guaranteed purchase contracts and subsidies enabled countries like Russia to buy these second-line drugs at sharply reduced prices. Before taking a small group of foreign reporters and physicians on a tour of the bed prison hospital currently only 60 percent filled with TB patients , director Pushkarev claimed the eight-year-old program had dramatically improved results.
Since , we've had zero deaths among new cases," he said.
The hospital infrastructure had to be almost entirely rebuilt. Global Fund money helped to build an airtight closet for collecting sputum. The lab for analyzing and culturing the samples got new equipment. Whereas prisoners with susceptible TB were sent to live in barracks, those found to have MDR-TB were sent to an isolation ward in the hospital, where they lived six to eight in the room.
Although those conditions are a marked improvement from a decade ago at least the MDR-TB patients are isolated from other prisoners , the opportunity for reinfection is ever present under such crowded conditions.
In , 26 percent of all registered induced abortions were "mini-abortions" Table 3. Unemployment and alcoholism skyrocketed. Wrong language? Local doctors were more than willing to buck the national establishment and adopt DOTS. People's Comissariat of Justice, R, and he was reelected in
But putting four to five people in a room in winter with the windows closed? Infection control is still an issue here. You have free article s left.
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