À la recherche du merisier spécial (French Edition)

À la recherche du merisier spécial
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Evidence of seasonal variations and air pressure constraints. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. Paris, Vol. Paris, t. Archives et Traceurs. Toggle navigation lsce. Dominique Genty Dynamique et archives du climat Glaces et continents, climats et isotopes stables Precise dating of Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations in western Europe from stalagmite data.

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In particular, if moisture convergence contributes to an isotopic enrichment [ Yoshimura et al. This result is not in contradiction with a major effect of rain evaporation on the isotopic composition of precipitation as explained in section 3. For instance, the simulation of the class A event underestimates d v by 2.

This underestimation can be explained by two possible mechanisms: First, a compensation effect between r ev and f rev. Second, relative humidity, as measured at the surface, might not be representative of the relative humidity at which rain evaporation occurs. Indeed, the d v increase due to rain evaporation is more efficient when relative humidity is low.

Thus, high relative humidity at the surface is partly responsible for the underestimated increase in d v. We still underestimate the mean increase in d v , but we match the observations better 1. Although we only consider two processes, the model is able to reproduce the main features of the water vapor observations to first order for class A events.

Similarly, the water vapor depletion recorded at the beginning of rainfall for class B events can be interpreted as the effect of mesoscale subsidence. However, the model fails to reproduce the enrichment of vapor correctly. For the same reason, the model fails to reproduce the isotopic evolution of class C events. One of the objectives of the paper was to test the dominant role of mesoscale subsidence and reevaporation of droplets in controlling the isotopic composition of surface water vapor.

The mixed results for classes B and C also reveal that other major controls on the isotopic composition of water vapor may exert a dominant role, strong enough to offset both subsidence and reevaporation of droplets. We cite among them 1 the influence of soil evaporation, which contributes to the remoistening of the low levels and may act like rain evaporation on the isotopic composition of the water vapor; 2 the entrainment of environmental air which can bring moisture with a specific isotopic composition; 3 the evaporation of droplets from ice crystals in mixed phase clouds [ Bolot et al.

However, taking into account such additional processes requires the use of more elaborated and realistic models, fitted with a convection scheme for instance.

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This region is characterized by intense deep convection and strong rain evaporation processes during the monsoon period. We demonstrate the potential of these measurements to investigate the role of convective processes and simulate the isotopic evolution of water in MCS using a simple box model. In particular, we quantify the respective roles of mesoscale subsidence and rain evaporation in controlling the proportion of moisture and the isotopic composition of subcloud vapor. We applied this model to the different isotopic classes A, B, and C.

The model replicates well the isotopic composition of water vapor for class A; however, it fails to reproduce well the increasing isotopic composition of water vapor occurring during rain stage for classes B and C. This implies that if subsidence and rain evaporation play a dominant role in cold pools on water vapor ratio for class A, other processes must offset the effects of both rain reevaporation and mesoscale subsidence for classes B and C.

We summarize below the main characteristics of each isotopic class, as well as the interpretation of their water isotopic evolution in terms of atmospheric mechanisms: The most frequent type of evolution class A, This category also corresponds to events for which precipitation and vapor composition are the closest to equilibrium, because high relative humidity favors diffusive exchanges between falling droplets and surrounding vapor.

Our modeling study demonstrates that for class A events, mesoscale subsidence is the major control of the isotopic composition of surface vapor.

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Deuterium excess of the vapor first records a sharp increase and then a progressive decrease. The sharp increase may reflect the influence of rain evaporation in the stratiform part below the cloud base, where relative humidity is lower than at the surface. The progressive decrease in d v could be explained by the progressive reequilibration of vapor with precipitation. Class B events Class B also records depletion of water vapor right after the transition between the initial stage and the rain stage.

This suggests that more intense convective systems show a stronger rain evaporation effect, weaker reequilibration processes, and stronger entrainment rate of environmental air into the stratiform part of the MCS. Class C events are the least frequent This suggests that rain partially evaporates even if this process is not dominant to explain water vapor isotope ratios.

The simultaneous measurements of precipitation and water vapor are essential to improve our understanding of the interactions between both phases. We are aware that the temporal evolution of our measurements strongly depends on convective systems spatial stationarity.

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Having more instrumented sites around Niamey station would allow us to measure several points in latitudinal and longitudinal transects and to go further into these questions. More systematic measurements of the isotopic composition of the rain at high frequency would have been also helpful. Are equilibrium processes with cloud droplet or lofted ice important?

It now includes a new parametrization of the boundary layer, thermals, and a parametrization of cold pools [ Rio et al. Comparing model simulations with observations would be a first step to evaluate the role of cold pools in the control of the isotopic composition of water vapor in the model. This could also bring information on possible biases related to these processes. Lawrence, and three anonymous reviewers for their very useful comments regarding this paper.

The isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation during rain evaporation depends, among other parameters, on the fraction of an average droplet that is reevaporated f rev [ Stewart , ]. In the wake box see section 2.

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The LUH2 data provide a new distinction between rangelands and pasture. About 6, volunteers from Quebec participated on the European front. Fabie Duhamel. AB and RAH provided updated land-use change emissions. The project aims to develop a quantization procedure based on the topological recursion, to demonstrate its consistency with knot-theoretic quantization of A-polynomials, and to generalize this quantization scheme to super-A-polynomials.

This enables us to calculate f rev using the following equations. In a similar way, the evaporation rate E can be expressed as a function of the subsiding flux F sub : A2. We assume that the unsaturated downdraft is in a steady state and that the surface is constant with the altitude. The evaporation flux can also be expressed as a function of the precipitation rate and f rev : A3. For instance, a small amount of rain falling into a big amount of water vapor will have less influence on the isotopic composition of water vapor and especially on its deuterium excess. This initial ratio M can be expressed as follows: A5.

Using equation A1 and the definition of q p , we find A6.

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We assume in section 3. Volume , Issue 9. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Open access. Research Article Free Access. Tremoy, E-mail address: Guillaume. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.

Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.

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À la recherche du merisier spécial (French Edition) on oroloqowef.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Émerise a un prénom peu commun. C'est son père qui le lui a donné parce que, dit-il, elle est spéciale comme un petit merisier. Un jour d'automne, la jeune fille.

Water vapor deuterium excess is not available during the monsoon. Vertical dashed blue lines represent monsoon onset dates 29 June in and 22 June in , see section 2. The number of events where water vapor deuterium excess d v is available is indicated into brackets. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. In the stratiform region, a dry airflow enters the system at the rear toward the base of the convective part. Precipitation partially reevaporates and cools the subcloud region. The resulting water vapor in the cold pool can also partially reequilibrates with the surrounding raindrops. Mass conservation in the condensation box gives the following equation: 1.

Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.

This is an example based on the 15 August event initial state: temperature of Black lines are for vapor, whereas red lines are for liquid condensate which is assumed to be in equilibrium with the vapor. Frost point is represented by the blue dashed line and dew point by the green solid line. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Evolution, in the evaporation box, of the isotopic composition of water vapor and precipitation as a function of the fraction f rev of an average droplet that is reevaporated.

The ratio M [see Bony et al. Sensitivity to the relative humidity h b in the unsaturated downdraft is shown by the different color lines. Mass conservation for humidity and water vapor isotopic ratio gives 5. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.

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Events A and B showing a progressive isotopic decrease are denoted by asterisk.